Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

The Indonesian Informatics Association (Ikatan Ahli Informatika Indonesia/IAII) is a non-profit that brings together professionals in Indonesian informatics to work together to advance the field of informatics and increase Indonesia's competitiveness through computing globally (a field that encompasses informatics/computer science, software engineering, information systems, information technology, management, and information technology governance). Publicated by the Indonesian Informatics Experts Association (IAII), the open-access journal RESTI (Rekayasa Sistem dan Teknologi Informasi) focuses on system engineering and digital technology. Researchers, professionals, and academics can all contribute to and share cutting-edge information technology research through this journal. Publication malpractice is strictly prohibited by all means, and RESTI is dedicated to meeting and upholding the highest standards of publication ethics. It is our duty to publish original work in the best format and to the highest standards, which will be valuable to the academic community. Our authors and reviewers are held to the same standards. Among the essential values that help us accomplish our goal are honesty, originality, and fair dealing on the part of authors, and impartiality, secrecy, and fairness on the part of editors and reviewers. We support the international norms and codes of conduct established by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and act accordingly.

This statement clarifies the ethical behavior of all parties involved in the act of publishing articles in our journal, including authors, editors, reviewers, and publishers (Indonesian Informatics Experts Association/IAII). This statement is based on the COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors. All submitted manuscripts must conform to the RESTI policies as described. All manuscripts are subject to peer review and must meet academic excellence requirements. Submissions will be considered by peer reviewers whose identities will remain anonymous to the authors if authorized by the editor. In all cases, RESTI strictly adheres to the COPE standards of publication ethics, as outlined in its core practice papers. The RESTI editorial boards are independent, and the publisher will not influence editorial decisions. When ethical or legal concerns arise, a decision may be reversed; acceptance of a manuscript may be revoked if an ethical issue or violation of policies is discovered. Manuscripts that do not comply with RESTI ethical norms may be withdrawn from consideration by the publisher. All manuscripts are checked by RESTI to ensure that they comply with the Publication Ethics Guidelines. Some of the described checks are carried out with the assistance of checks, assisted by Turnitin, while others are carried out manually by the Journal Editorial Office personnel. A human decision maker confirms the potential issues that are detected. In many circumstances, an Academic Editor is consulted when a paper does not correspond to policies or is highlighted during a check.

RESTI fully adheres to its Code of Conduct and its Best Practice Guidelines. To facilitate the contribution of high-quality scientific studies to the field of academic publication, the RESTI journal adheres to a rigorous peer review procedure, as well as defined ethical principles and standards. When we become aware of ethical difficulties, we are committed to investigating and taking the necessary steps to protect the integrity of the literature and the safety of research participants. Manuscripts should follow the editorial and ethical criteria established on this page and in the RESTI Guidelines for Authors.

Authorship and Contributorship

Authorship: Based on these criteria; substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work, drafting the work or critically revising it for important intellectual content, final approval of the version to be published, the agreement is to be responsible for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. An author should be able to specify which co-authors are responsible for particular other portions of the work in addition to being responsible for the parts of the work he or she has done. Furthermore, the authors should have faith in the integrity of their co-authors' contributions. The journal includes only one corresponding author per article. Authors should meet all four journal criteria for authorship, and all those who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. The authorship by an artificial intelligence is not considered. The author using artificial intelligence should inform the details in the acknowledgment.

Contributorship: The journal follows Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT), a broad classification system that consists of 14 roles and is used to depict the roles usually taken on by those who contribute to research works. Each role outlines the particular contribution made by the contributor to the academic output.To ensure complete openness, all submitted manuscripts may include an author contributorship declaration that details each author's effort. A short paragraph describing each author's individual contributions is required for research articles by several authors. The corresponding author should serve as a point of contact between the editor and the other authors, keeping the co-authors informed and involving them in major publication decisions. 

Ethical Guidelines for Authors: Authors submitting manuscripts to RESTI publications must ensure that they are ethically sound and meet industry-recognized standards, as represented in RESTI policies. Authors who submit their manuscripts to RESTI journals must:

  • Present your research findings accurately and give an objective assessment of their importance.
  • Maintain accurate authorship by including only those who are eligible for authorship and explicitly describing their contribution.
  • At the time of submission, disclose any information that could be interpreted as a potential conflict of interest.
  • Present your data and techniques with precision. The data and methods used in the study must be described in sufficient detail in the publication for other researchers to repeat their work. Unless there is a strong reason to the contrary (e.g., patient confidentiality), raw data must be made public.
  • Please note that concurrent submission of articles to multiple journals is not authorized.
  • Original research results must be unique and previously unpublished, and any translations must adhere to our translation policy.
  • Obtain permission from the copyright owners to publish any previously published content (including quotations, figures, or tables).
  • Promptly communicate any errors or inaccuracies discovered after publication.
  • Disclose in your manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of your manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

Use of AI or AI-Assisted Technologies: When it comes to the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technology in manuscript preparation, RESTI adheres to the position statement of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). ChatGPT and other large language models (LLMs) do not meet the authorship criteria and are therefore not permitted to be listed as authors in manuscripts. In cases where AI or AI-assisted tools were used in the preparation of a manuscript, this must be declared appropriately and with sufficient details at the time of submission via the cover letter. Authors are fully responsible for the originality, validity, and integrity of their manuscript content and must ensure that it complies with all of RESTI's publication ethics policies.

Deceased authors: If a manuscript is submitted with the authorship of a deceased author, or if an author dies during peer review, the corresponding author or coauthors must notify the editorial office. If the deceased author was a corresponding author, the authorship group should appoint a coauthor to fill this position. The corresponding author should confirm the contribution of the deceased author and any potential conflicts of interest. When the article is published, a note will be added to the authors' list.

Changes to Authorship: Before submitting a manuscript, authors are expected to carefully consider their authorship. Any changes to the author list should be made during the editorial process, prior to manuscript acceptance. Authorship changes, including the addition, removal, or rearrangement of author names, will require the approval of all authors, including those who will be removed. To request a change of authorship, the journal must receive a completed authorship change form that includes the signatures of all authors and a reason for the change. Any changes to authorship requested after manuscript acceptance will result in a delay in publication. If the manuscript has already been published, requests for changes in authorship will be considered and will necessitate the publication of a correction. We reserve the right to request proof of authorship, and changes to authorship after acceptance will be made at the discretion of RESTI.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Author: The author bears numerous responsibilities when submitting a manuscript for publication. First, the author must ensure that all individuals listed as authors have met the established authorship criteria. Additionally, the author is collaboratively responsible for the work and content of the paper, which includes methodologies, analyses, computations, and details. It is imperative that the author identify the source of resources, including financial support, either directly or indirectly. Furthermore, the author must explicitly state any limitations or shortcomings of the research.

In the event of comments from reviewers and editorial boards or editors, the author is obligated to respond in a scientific and timely manner. The author should refrain from engaging in superfluous or unrelated discussions with the editor regarding the enhancement of the work's quality. It is essential that the author declares the submitted written material to be original, unpublished in any form or language, and not currently under consideration by another publisher. The manuscript should be written according to the instructions provided by the author. If an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their own published work, it is their duty to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. By adhering to these responsibilities, authors contribute to the integrity and quality of the scientific publication process.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Editor in Chief: The Editor-in-Chief holds a pivotal role in the management and operation of the journal, with a wide range of duties and responsibilities. When necessary, the Editor-in-Chief determines the journal's name, scientific scope, scale, and accreditation, as well as the composition of the editorial board. The Editor-in-Chief also defines the relationships between publishers, editors, reviewers, and other stakeholders, while recognizing the importance of confidentiality for all parties involved in the publication process, including contributing researchers, authors, editors, and reviewers. Intellectual property rights, particularly copyright, are a key concern for the Editor-in-Chief, who is responsible for applying the relevant rules and provisions. The Editor-in-Chief examines and communicates the journal's policies to authors, editors, reviewers, and readers, and creates a code of conduct for editors and reviewers to ensure ethical and professional standards are maintained.

Ensuring the timely publication of the journal is another critical responsibility of the Editor-in-Chief, who must also secure the necessary financial resources to maintain the long-term viability of the journal's articles. Building a network of collaboration and marketing is essential for the success and growth of the journal, as is constant work to improve its quality. Finally, the Editor-in-Chief is responsible for obtaining permissions and managing other legal aspects related to the journal's operation and publication, ensuring that all necessary legal requirements are met and that the journal operates within the appropriate legal framework.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Editor: The editor plays a crucial role in the publication process, ensuring that the author's work is effectively communicated to the reader and meets the journal's standards. The editor provides comments and feedback on the author's writing, either through remarks written on the manuscript or discussion options on the journal website, to enhance clarity and understanding. This feedback is delivered in a language that adheres to the journal's guidelines with the aim of sustainably improving the quality of publications. The editor maintains an objective stance, favoring free expression, while also ensuring that the author's writing does not contain sensitive or controversial content that could negatively impact the publisher.

In addition to providing feedback, the editor is responsible for making necessary changes, explanations, withdrawals, and apologies when necessary. The editor also receives, investigates, and follows up on complaints from all parties involved in the journal's publication process, ensuring that any issues are adequately addressed. To promote ethical publication practices, the editor supports activities that educate scholars on publication ethics and maintains an objective position, avoiding the defense of personal beliefs, writers, or third parties that may lead to biased conclusions. The editor encourages authors to improve their work until it reaches a standard worthy of publication and is responsible for formatting the manuscript to fit the journal's template. Finally, the editor works closely with the editor-in-chief to finalize a collection of manuscripts before they are printed and published, focusing on aspects such as language, format, and layout to ensure a polished and consistent final product.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Reviewers: Reviewers of a journal have several key duties and responsibilities to ensure the integrity and quality of the publication process. First, reviewers are expected to provide impartial and objective written feedback on the scientific significance and contribution of the manuscript to the advancement of knowledge in the field. This feedback should clearly indicate whether the writing is clear, complete and relevant, as well as whether the article falls within the scope of the journal. It is crucial that reviewers maintain a professional and respectful tone in their feedback, refraining from making personal criticisms or comments that could be perceived as offensive or inappropriate. Reviewers must also maintain the confidentiality of the manuscript by not discussing its contents with individuals who are not directly involved in the review process and by not sharing or releasing any of the material included in the text to others. By adhering to these duties and responsibilities, reviewers play a vital role in upholding the standards of the journal and contributing to the advancement of scientific knowledge through the publication of high-quality research.

Complaints and Appeals

The journal’s policy on handling complaints is in accordance with the guidelines published by the Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE). Before sending the complaint to the Editor in Chief, through, the journal suggests that the complainant contact the corresponding author and try to resolve the matter directly. However, the complainant can also directly send the complaint to the Editor in Chief in cases where there are valid reasons for not contacting the authors, if the authors were unresponsive when contacted, or if the discussion in the first instance did not resolve the concerns. 

When a complainant wishes to raise a concern or complaint regarding a published article in the journal, they should follow a specific procedure. First, the complainant must email the Editor in Chief through the designated email address, It is important to note that only complaints related to scientific or academic validity, ethical or legal aspects of the work or its review will be considered. Complaints containing personal criticisms of the authors, inappropriate or derogatory language, or those submitted using a false or misleading identity will not be entertained. Upon receiving a complaint, the Editor in Chief may consult with the Advisory Editor and Associate Editor to determine whether there are sufficient grounds for further consideration of the complaint. If further investigation is deemed necessary, the author(s) will be informed of the complaint. The investigation conducted by the Editor in Chief can result in various outcomes, including deeming the complaint unsubstantiated, identifying errors that justify the publication of a corrigendum, revealing author bias on a contentious or controversial subject, indicating the need for considering a retraction, or exposing an irrefutable reason for a retraction.

Complainants should be aware that investigations can take some time to conduct and that the journal is not obligated to disclose the status of the investigation until the editor in chief makes a decision. In the event that an author's article is rejected by the journal, they have the right to appeal the decision. An appeal is considered an extension of the peer review process and is subject to the same ethical standards. Therefore, authors should not make an appeal while the article is being considered by another publication. Appeals that meet the specified requirements are sent to the Advisory Editor for consideration. If successful, an appeal can lead to the article re-entering the peer review process, and the article may ultimately be published following any revisions deemed necessary by the Advisory Editor. Authors should refrain from submitting a revised version of the article until the appeal process is complete. If the appeal is rejected, the original rejection decision is upheld and no further consideration of that article is possible.

Conflicts of Interest

The journal adheres to the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) regarding conflicts of interest or competing interests. A conflict of interest, also known as a competing interest, may arise when the authors, their employer, or sponsor have a financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations or individuals involved in the research, potentially influencing the study's outcomes.

When submitting a paper to the journal, authors are required to provide full disclosure of any conflicts of interest. The Editor in Chief utilizes this information to inform the initial editorial decision. If the paper is accepted for publication, a disclosure statement is published to assist readers in evaluating the article. The Editor in Chief reserves the right to reject a paper based on any declared conflict of interest. Authors can declare conflicts of interest in either the cover letter or the manuscript submission form provided in the journal's Open Journal System. Conflicts of interest can be financial or non-financial in nature. To maintain transparency, any associations that may be perceived by others as a conflict of interest must also be declared. By following these guidelines and promoting transparency regarding conflicts of interest, the journal aims to ensure the integrity and credibility of the research it publishes.

Data Sharing and Reproducibility

The journal's policies on data sharing and reproducibility align with the guidelines provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). In an effort to promote transparency and reproducibility, the journal strongly encourages authors to include supplementary materials, such as data sets and code, that support the results presented in their final article. However, this policy applies only when the sharing of data does not violate the protection of human subjects or other valid privacy concerns. Authors are encouraged to cite data and provide a data availability statement at the end of their manuscript.

A data availability statement, also known as a data access statement, informs readers about the location and accessibility conditions of the research data associated with the article. This statement should include links to the data set where applicable. By promoting data sharing and reproducibility, the journal aims to foster a culture of openness and collaboration within the scientific community, enabling other researchers to build upon and validate existing findings. This approach ultimately contributes to the advancement of knowledge and the integrity of the research process.

Ethical Oversight

The journal's ethics oversight policies are based on the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Ethical oversight should include, but is not limited to, policies on consent to publication, publication on vulnerable populations, ethical conduct of research using animals, ethical conduct of research using human subjects, handling confidential data, and ethical business/marketing practices.

Consent to Publication: The journal's ethics oversight policies are based on the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Ethical oversight should include, but is not limited to, policies on consent to publication, publication on vulnerable populations, ethical conduct of research using animals, ethical conduct of research using human subjects, handling confidential data, and ethical business/marketing practices.

Publication on Vulnerable Populations: The journal recognizes the importance of research on vulnerable populations and welcomes scholarly contributions in this area, provided that all ethical considerations and guidelines are rigorously followed throughout the research process. Researchers must obtain appropriate informed consent, maintain confidentiality, and address any potential risks or harm that may arise from their research. In instances where the Editor-in-Chief believes that a publication on vulnerable populations may have legal implications, the matter will be carefully reviewed in consultation with the authors, the advisory editor, and, if necessary, official government bodies to ensure compliance with legal requirements and protect the rights of the vulnerable populations under study. The journal remains committed to promoting responsible research practices and addressing the needs and concerns of vulnerable populations while upholding the principles of integrity, dignity, and social responsibility.

Ethical Conduct of Research Using Animals: The journal is committed to promoting responsible and humane use of animals in scientific studies and requires authors to provide information about the appropriate institutional review board (IRB) or animal care and use committee (IACUC) approval in their submissions or within the article itself. For studies involving animals, the authors should include details of the approval obtained from the relevant institutional or ethical review board responsible for overseeing animal research, demonstrating adherence to established guidelines for ethical treatment of animals. By requiring this information, the journal aims to ensure that published research meets the highest ethical standards in animal welfare, promotes transparency and accountability, and contributes to the advancement of knowledge while upholding responsible conduct in the scientific community.

Ethical Conduct of Research Using Human Subjects: The journal places paramount importance on ethical conduct in research involving human subjects and is committed to upholding the highest standards of well-being, rights, and privacy of participants. The authors are required to provide institutional review board (IRB) approval and a detailed explanation of how informed consent was obtained from all participants. Informed consent ensures that participants are fully informed about the purpose, procedures, risks, and potential benefits of the study, and voluntarily agree to participate. Respecting the privacy and confidentiality of human subjects is crucial, and identification information should be excluded unless essential and prior written informed consent has been obtained. By adhering to these ethical guidelines and including documentation of informed consent in their articles, authors contribute to the protection and welfare of human subjects and maintain the integrity of scientific research.

Handling Confidential Data: The journal is committed to upholding the highest standards of ethical conduct and protecting the confidentiality of data. Authors, reviewers, and editors are expected to handle confidential data with utmost care, securely store and transmit it, and ensure that it is accessible only to authorized individuals involved in the peer review process, all in compliance with relevant regulations and guidelines. Any potential conflicts of interest related to the handling of confidential data must be disclosed and, in case of concerns regarding data privacy or breaches, the journal will initiate appropriate investigations and take necessary actions to safeguard confidentiality and ensure integrity in research and publication.

Ethical Business/Marketing Practices: The journal is committed to upholding ethical standards in all aspects of its operations, including the publication process, and firmly believes in fostering a fair and transparent environment that promotes scholarly excellence and discourages practices that may exploit authors or compromise the integrity of academic research. The journal maintains a clear and equitable publishing process, free from undue influence or financial exploitation, and does not engage in activities that attract authors to publish their work at high costs or under misleading circumstances. Authors should be aware that the journal takes no responsibility for offers or solicitations from individuals or entities claiming to represent the journal and engaging in unethical practices, and they are encouraged to consult the Editor in Chief to verify the authenticity of any such offers and seek guidance on how to proceed. By prioritizing ethical conduct and integrity, the journal strives to maintain the credibility and reputation of the academic community and to ensure that the publication process remains fair, unbiased, and free from practices that compromise the principles of academic integrity and responsible research dissemination.

Intellectual Property

The journal's policies on intellectual property align with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and encompass copyright, licensing, and costs associated with publication. The copyright of each article remains with the author(s), who grant the journal first publication rights. Simultaneously, the work is licensed under the Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 open access license, allowing others to share the work with acknowledgment of authorship and initial publication in the journal. Authors may enter into separate contractual agreements for non-exclusive distribution of published versions of their work, such as posting them to institutional repositories or publishing them in a book, provided they acknowledge the initial publication in the journal. Authors are encouraged to post their work online before and during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges and increased citations. 

All published content in the journal is licensed under the Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 open access license, permitting anyone to share, adapt, remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, as long as they provide appropriate credit, link to the license, indicate if changes were made, and distribute their contributions under the same license as the original, without applying legal terms or technological measures that restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

Post-Publication Discussions

The journal values open dialogue and constructive engagement with our readership. We welcome discussions and feedback from readers on the contents published in our journal. We believe that post-publication discussions contribute to the advancement of knowledge and foster a vibrant academic community. Readers who wish to share their comments or provide feedback on published articles are encouraged to do so. They can send their comments directly to the Editor-in-Chief via the provided contact information. In the future, we are committed to enhancing the accessibility and convenience of post-publication discussions. We aim to implement a feature on our website that will allow readers to comment directly on published articles. This will facilitate a more seamless and interactive exchange of ideas within our academic community.

Allegations of Research Misconduct

The journal’s policy for managing allegations of research misconduct is based on the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethic (COPE). When a report of research misconduct is received by the Editor in Chief, whether it pertains to a published article or a manuscript under peer review, the procedure for handling and managing such complaints should be carried out with sensitivity, tact, and confidentiality. The complainant must clearly specify the nature and details of the alleged misconduct, such as highlighting the plagiarized paragraph and referring to the original and suspected articles in a case of plagiarism. Upon receiving the complaint, the Editor in Chief will initiate an investigation, during which the section editor of the suspected article and the corresponding author(s) will be contacted. The Editor in Chief may also involve any Advisory Editor or Associate Editor in the process. The corresponding author(s) will be asked to provide an explanation along with factual statements and any available evidence. If the author(s) of the suspected article acknowledge the misconduct complaint, the Editor in Chief will take appropriate actions based on the situation. 

In the case of a published article, an erratum or retraction may be necessary to address the issue, although there may be disagreement regarding the wording of the description. If misconduct is reported during the review process, the process can proceed with the author(s) making the necessary changes. In the event of non-response within the stipulated time or an unsatisfactory explanation, the article may face permanent retraction or rejection. Before making a decision, confirmation will be sought from experts at the relevant institution or other authorities as needed. The complainant will be informed of the outcome once the issue is resolved and the complaint case will then be considered closed. 

Plagiarism: The RESTI journals strictly prohibit plagiarism, which is defined as the act of copying text, ideas, images, or data from another source, including one's own publications, without properly crediting the original source. Any copied text must be placed between quotation marks and the original source must be cited. If a study's design, structure, or language was inspired by previous research, it must be explicitly acknowledged. The journals use industry-standard software "Turnitin" to verify all submissions for plagiarism, and if plagiarism is discovered during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. In cases where plagiarism is discovered after publication, an investigation will be conducted, and appropriate action will be taken in accordance with the journals' policies.

Corrections and Retractions

The journal's policies on corrections and retractions, based on the Public Knowledge Project (PKP)'s documentation and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)'s retraction guidelines, emphasize a proactive approach to addressing potential corrections or retractions before publishing. Corrections and retractions can arise from various sources, including errors within the publication process, author requests, or reports by readers or external parties. The journal categorizes corrections and retractions into three main types. Minor corrections involve small errors that do not substantially alter the content of the published work, such as typographical errors or metadata errors. Substantive corrections, on the other hand, are meaningful errors that impact the content, including the addition or removal of significant sentences or paragraphs or changes to figures or data. Retractions involve the complete removal of an entire work, and partial retractions should be avoided and instead treated as substantive corrections. By clearly defining these categories, the journal aims to handle corrections and retractions in a transparent and consistent manner, ensuring the integrity of the published work.

The Editor-in-Chief should consider retracting a publication in several circumstances. First, if there is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable due to a major error, such as miscalculation or experimental error, or as a result of fabrication or falsification of data or images, retraction should be considered. Second, if the publication constitutes plagiarism or contains material or data used without proper authorization, retraction may be necessary. If the findings have been previously published elsewhere without proper attribution, disclosure to the editor, permission to republish, or justification, indicating cases of redundant publication, retraction should be considered. Copyright infringement or other serious legal issues, such as libel or privacy violations, may also warrant retraction.

Furthermore, if the publication reports unethical research or has been published solely based on a compromised or manipulated peer review process, retraction should be considered. Lastly, if the author(s) failed to disclose a major competing interest or conflict of interest that, in the editor's view, would have unduly affected interpretations of the work or recommendations by editors and peer reviewers, retraction may be necessary. By carefully considering these factors, the Editor-in-Chief can ensure the integrity and reliability of the published works, maintaining the journal's standards and reputation.

In the event of a retraction, notices of retraction will be issued and will adhere to specific guidelines. These notices will be linked to the retracted article wherever possible, particularly in all online versions, to ensure accessibility and visibility. The retracted article will be clearly identified within the notice, typically by including the title and authors in the retraction heading or explicitly citing the retracted article. To distinguish the notice from other types of corrections or comments, it will be clearly labeled a retraction. The journal will prioritize publishing the retraction notice promptly to minimize any potential harmful effects caused by the retracted article. Access to the retraction notice will be freely available to all readers, ensuring that it is not restricted by access barriers or limited to subscribers only.

The retraction notice will state the party responsible for retracting the article, as well as the specific reason(s) for the retraction. The language used in the notice will be objective, factual, and non-inflammatory to maintain professionalism and integrity throughout the process. By adhering to these guidelines, the journal aims to handle retractions transparently, effectively, and in a manner that upholds the principles of academic integrity and responsible publishing practices. Retractions are generally not considered appropriate in certain situations. If there is a dispute regarding the authorship of a publication, but the validity of the findings remains unquestioned, a retraction may not be necessary. In cases where the main findings of the work are still reliable and corrections could sufficiently address any errors or concerns, a retraction might not be the most suitable course of action.

Additionally, if the Editor-in-Chief has inconclusive evidence to support a retraction or is awaiting further information, such as the results of an institutional investigation, it may be prudent to refrain from retracting the article until a definitive conclusion can be reached. Furthermore, if conflicts of interest involving the authors are reported to the journal after publication, but the editor believes that these conflicts are unlikely to have influenced the interpretations, recommendations, or conclusions of the article, a retraction may not be warranted. In such situations, the Editor-in-Chief should carefully assess the circumstances and consider alternative measures, such as publishing corrections or expressions of concern, to address the issues at hand while maintaining the integrity of the published work and the journal's reputation.