Vehicle Detection Monitoring System using Internet of Things
The overcapacity of vehicle numbers is one of the significant causes of the traffic congestion problem on Indonesia roadways. The government applies a One-way system (SSA) as one proposed solution to unravel the congestion. However, several congestion points are still found during the SSA implementation. Thus, this research offers an alternative method to detect congestion using IoT technology. The system automatically enumerates the number, classifies the type, and computes the speed averages of vehicles to identify the severity of congestion based on the Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM) published by the Ministry of Public Works 2014. We utilize ultrasonic sensors to detect the vehicles and send the data to the server in real time. The research successfully develops an IoT system for traffic congestion detection. Communication between nodes and API can be done well. Data exchange involving encryption and decryption with AES-256 is successfully done. The website application developed in this research successfully show the severity level of the congestion and their vehicle numbers. The average accuracy of the system is 78,97%. The system detected more vehicles than actual numbers due to the misreading value of the sensors.
G. Cookson, “INRIX Global Trafﬁc Scorecard,” p. 44, 2018.
S. Sumadi, “Kemacetan Lalulintas Pada Ruas Jalan Veteran Kota BrebeS,” Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia, 2006. Accessed: May 19, 2022. [Online]. Available: http://eprints.undip.ac.id/15909/1/Sumadi.pdf
BPS - Statistic Indonesia, “Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2014,” Badan Pusat Statistik, 2014. Accessed: May 19, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.bps.go.id/publication/download.html?nrbvfeve=OGQyYzA4ZDlkNDFhYThjMDJmYWQyMmU3&xzmn=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuYnBzLmdvLmlkL3B1YmxpY2F0aW9uLzIwMTQvMDUvMDUvOGQyYzA4ZDlkNDFhYThjMDJmYWQyMmU3L3N0YXRpc3Rpay1pbmRvbmVzaWEtMjAxNC5odG1s&twoadfnoarfeauf=MjAyMi0wNS0xOSAxNzo1MjoxMg%3D%3D
BPS - Statistic Indonesia, “Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2017,” Badan Pusat Statistik, 2017. Accessed: May 19, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.bps.go.id/publication/download.html?nrbvfeve=YjU5OGZhNTg3ZjUxMTI0MzI1MzNhNjU2&xzmn=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuYnBzLmdvLmlkL3B1YmxpY2F0aW9uLzIwMTcvMDcvMjYvYjU5OGZhNTg3ZjUxMTI0MzI1MzNhNjU2L3N0YXRpc3Rpay1pbmRvbmVzaWEtMjAxNy5odG1s&twoadfnoarfeauf=MjAyMi0wNS0xOSAxODowNDoxOA%3D%3D
S. Ezell, “Explaining International IT Application Leadership: Intelligent Transportation Systems,” Jan. 2010, Accessed: May 19, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/911843
D. Chen, J. Ignatius, D. Sun, M. Goh, and S. Zhan, “Impact of congestion pricing schemes on emissions and temporal shift of freight transport,” Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, vol. 118, pp. 77–105, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.tre.2018.07.006.
R. D. Sapta, “Analisis dampak kemacetan lalu lintas terhadap sosial ekonomi pengguna jalan dengan contingent valuation method (CVM) (Studi kasus: Kota Bogor, Jawa Barat),” IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia, 2009. Accessed: May 19, 2022. [Online]. Available: http://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/14161
H. Yu, P. Wang, H. Zheng, J. Lio, and J. Liu, “Impacts of congestion on healthcare outcomes: an empirical observation in China,” Journal of Management Analytics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 344–366, Apr. 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/23270012.2020.1731720.
E. Bilotta, U. Vaid, and G. W. Evans, “Environmental Stress,” in Environmental Psychology, Second edition., 2018. Accessed: Jun. 03, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119241072.ch4
G. Li et al., “Influence of traffic congestion on driver behavior in post-congestion driving,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 141, p. 105508, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2020.105508.
Z. A. Abood, H. B. Taher, and R. F. Ghani, “Detection of Road Traffic Congestion Using V2V Communication Based on IoT,” Iraqi Journal of Science, pp. 335–345, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.24996/ijs.2021.62.1.32.
A. H. E. Fawal, A. Mansour, and M. Najem, “V2V Influence on M2M and H2H Traffics During Emergency Scenarios: Adaptive eNode-B for V2V Communications,” Global Advancements in Connected and Intelligent Mobility: Emerging Research and Opportunities, 2020. https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/v2v-influence-on-m2m-and-h2h-traffics-during-emergency-scenarios/www.igi-global.com/chapter/v2v-influence-on-m2m-and-h2h-traffics-during-emergency-scenarios/232025 (accessed Jun. 03, 2022).
R. Bauza and J. Gozalvez, “Traffic congestion detection in large-scale scenarios using vehicle-to-vehicle communications,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1295–1307, Sep. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2012.02.007.
D. Shrivastava and A. Agrawal, “A Survey Of Various Algorithms In congestion Detection In Vanet,” vol. 3, no. 6, p. 5, 2014.
S. Mohamed Hatim, S. Jamel Elias, N. Awang, and M. Y. Darus, “VANETs and Internet of Things (IoT): A Discussion,” IJEECS, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 218, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.11591/ijeecs.v12.i1.pp218-224.
S. Muthuramalingam, A. Bharathi, S. Rakesh kumar, N. Gayathri, R. Sathiyaraj, and B. Balamurugan, “IoT Based Intelligent Transportation System (IoT-ITS) for Global Perspective: A Case Study,” in Internet of Things and Big Data Analytics for Smart Generation, vol. 154, V. E. Balas, V. K. Solanki, R. Kumar, and M. Khari, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 279–300. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-04203-5_13.
N. B. Soni and J. Saraswat, “A review of IoT devices for traffic management system | IEEE Conference Publication | IEEE Xplore,” International conference on intelligent sustainable systems (ICISS), pp. 1052–1055, 2017.
C.-H. Chen and K.-R. Lo, “Applications of Internet of Things,” ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 7, no. 9, Art. no. 9, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.3390/ijgi7090334.
P. Sadhukhan and F. Gazi, “An IoT based Intelligent Traffic Congestion Control System for Road Crossings,” in 2018 International Conference on Communication, Computing and Internet of Things (IC3IoT), Feb. 2018, pp. 371–375. doi: 10.1109/IC3IoT.2018.8668131.
M. U.Farooq, M. Waseem, S. Mazhar, A. Khairi, and T. Kamal, “A Review on Internet of Things (IoT),” IJCA, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Mar. 2015, doi: 10.5120/19787-1571.
S. Madakam, R. Ramaswamy, and S. Tripathi, “Internet of Things (IoT): A Literature Review,” JCC, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 164–173, 2015.
S. Sukode and S. Gite, “Vehicle Traffic Congestion Control & Monitoring System in IoT,” International Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 19513–19523, Jan. 2015.
D. Evans, “How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything,” p. 11, 2011.
S. Singh, B. Singh, Ramandeep, B. Singh, and A. Das, “Automatic Vehicle Counting for IoT based Smart Traffic Management System for Indian urban Settings,” in 2019 4th International Conference on Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU), Ghaziabad, India, Apr. 2019, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1109/IoT-SIU.2019.8777722.
G. Lakshminarasimhan, V. Parthipan, M. I. Ahmed, S. Harsha K Nvm, and D. D. Dhanasekaran, “Traffic Density Detection And Signal Automation Using Iot,” International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 116, no. 21, pp. 389–394, 2017.
KEMENPU, “Pedoman Kapasitas Jalan Indonesia (Pkji).” KEMENPU, Jan. 01, 2014. Accessed: May 19, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.academia.edu/36420401/PEDOMAN_KAPASITAS_JALAN_INDONESIA_2014_LUAR_KOTA_
B. Titania, “Analisis Intensitas Bangunan Koridor Jalan Raya Cimahi berdasarkan Kapasitas Jalan,” ITB, Bandung, Indonesia, 2017. Accessed: May 19, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://digilib.itb.ac.id/index.php/gdl/view/7424
Y. Jo and I. Jung, “Analysis of Vehicle Detection with WSN-Based Ultrasonic Sensors,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 14050–14069, Aug. 2014.
S. Taghvaeeyan and R. Rajamani, “Portable Roadside Sensors for Vehicle Counting, Classification, and Speed Measurement,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transport. Syst., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 73–83, Feb. 2014, doi: 10.1109/TITS.2013.2273876.
S. Keawkamnerd, J. Chinrungrueng, and C. Jaruchart, “Vehicle Classification with low computation magnetic sensor | IEEE Conference Publication | IEEE Xplore,” 2008 8th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, 2008, doi: 10.1109/ITST.2008.4740249.
D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamental of Physics 9th Edition. Wiley, 2010.
Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal RESTI (Rekayasa Sistem dan Teknologi Informasi)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright in each article belongs to the author
- The author acknowledges that the RESTI Journal (System Engineering and Information Technology) is the first publisher to publish with a license Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors can enter writing separately, arrange the non-exclusive distribution of manuscripts that have been published in this journal into other versions (eg sent to the author's institutional repository, publication in a book, etc.), by acknowledging that the manuscript has been published for the first time in the RESTI (Rekayasa Sistem dan Teknologi Informasi) journal ;